The compressor tank check valve can be a source of problems on a compressor. If you wish to know more about them, or get help troubleshooting your air compressor tank check valve, this page will help.
A compressor tank check valve is a one-way or a non-passing valve. In other words, whatever is in the line that the check valve is installed in, can only flow through the check valve in one direction.
A typical location of a compressor tank check valve is shown in the photo. The description as to what they do and why they are important follows the photo.
The photo identifies the compressor tank check valve on a Central Pneumatic model and brand of air compressor.
Tank check valve location.
While not true for every air compressor make and model, the normal location for the tank check valve is as part of the fitting where the pump head line enters the tank.
The photo of the 40400 check valve shows the various ports. The port on the top right of the photo is where this tank check valve threads into the tank.
The port bottom right, with the ferrule and nut, is typically where the line from the pump head is connected.
The small port, pointing right up, the usually the line from the tank check valve that runs over to the unloader valve on the compressor.
How the tank check valve works.
As the compressor is running, as air is being compressed, it flows from the pump head down into the tank through the tank check valve. Since the check valve is a one way valve, once compressed air gets into the compressor tank, in theory, the only way it should get back out, is via the discharge coupler into which you connect your air hose.
Upstream from the tank check valve, and typically in the same fitting, is an air line that runs over to the pressure switch and to the unloader valve.
When the compressor stops after reaching cut out pressure, as the pressure switch trips to cut power to the compressor motor, it commonly also toggles the unloader valve to open.
Compressor Unloader Valve
A brief summary of the unloader valve function is that when the compressor shuts off, air that may be trapped over the piston in the compressor head, vents to atmosphere through the now open unloader valve.
It works hand in hand with the compressor tank check valve.
In order for the unloader valve to work, there has to been an open line between it and the compressor head. That line is commonly teed off the tank check valve fitting.
Tank Check Valve Keeps Air In The Compressor Tank
When the unloader valve opens the compressor pump to atmosphere, if there were no compressor tank check valve, as soon as the compressor stopped and the unloader valve opened, not only would the air bleed off from over the compressor piston, all of the air in the compressor tank would bleed out the unloader valve to atmosphere too.
The tank check valves purpose is to keep the compressed air in the tank so it there to be used by downstream air-using equipment.
Check Valve Allows Air In
When the compressors components are operating normally, and when the pressure switch senses the tank pressure is low enough, the pressure switch trips, and turns on the compressor motor.
At the same time, the pressure switch (usually it is a toggle on the pressure switch, but not always) closes the unloader valve. Now the compressor is running, air is being pumped into the air tank, and none of it can flow down the line and out the unloader valve.
When the pressure in the tank again reaches the cut out pressure setting on the pressure switch, the pressure switch trips again, the motor is shut off, the unloader valve is opened, and the cycle repeats.
Leaky Tank Check Valve
Many folks, with an air leak at the pressure switch, may think that the switch itself is leaking or that the unloader valve has failed, and is allowing compressed air to bleed out of the air tank.
While a leaking unloader valve is a possibility, the more frequent occurrence is that the check valve has not seated properly, and is allowing air to bleed out of the tank, when normally it should be shut tight allowing no compressed air to escape.
Depending on how much debris was in the check valve seats or the level of check valve failure that had occurred, would determine whether the leak out of the unloader valve was slight or a lot of wasted compressed air.
If you have a leaking unloader valve, first make sure the compressor power is off, that the tank is drained of all compressed air, then remove and clean or replace the check valve assembly to stop the leak.
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